Monday, May 25, 2020

Essay on Confucianism - 1052 Words

Confucianism What is Confucianism? Confucianism was the single most important thing in Chinese life. It affected everything in China; education, government, and attitudes toward behavior in public and private life. Confucianism is not a religion, but it is more a philosophy and a guide to morality and good government. The Laozian and Mohist critiques of the Confucianism are both in an accurate fashion. Most significant value from Lazi is The Tao Te Jing. It is true that, while Confucianism emphasizes social order and an active life, Taoism concentrates on individual life and tranquility, thus suggesting that Taoism plays a secondary role (pp. 136 SB) In the writings of The Tao Te Jing, Lazi answers how is Confucianism should be,†¦show more content†¦169 SB) Tao is the essence of everything that is right, and complications exist only because people choose to complicate their own lives. Desire, ambition, fame, and selfishness are seen as hindrances to a harmonious life. It is only when a person rids himself of all desires can tao being achieved. By shunning every earthly distraction, the Taoist is able to concentrate on life itself. The longer the persons life, the more saintly the person is presumed to have become. Eventually the hope is to become immortal, to achieve tao, to have reached the deeper life. This is the after life for a Taoist, to be in harmony with the un iverse, to have achieved tao (pp. 173 SB). In ancient China, up to the beginning of the Han dynasty, the greatest schools were not only Confucianism, but also Mohism. The whole Confucian ethical system is based on the concept of humanity, whereas Mozi based his on the concept of righteousness. To the Confucianist, heaven does not directly exert its will but leaves the moral law to operate by itself. To Mo Tzu, however, the will of heaven determines all. Mo Tzu strongly condemns ceremonies, music, elaborate funerals, and the belief in fate (Ming, destiny), all of which were promoted by Confucius and his followers. For Confucius, moral life is desirable for its own sake, whereas for Mo Tzu it desirables because of the Benefits it brings. (PP. 221 SB) Mozi does emphasizeShow MoreRelatedConfucianism : Taoism, Confucianism, And Confucianism1156 Words   |  5 PagesRaymond Cho EALC 350 October 29, 2014 Professor Birge Which philosophy: Taoism, Confucianism, or Legalism would be best in your opinion for maintaining a peaceful society? Why? Perhaps there is no single philosophy that can create a truly peaceful society. The conundrum of choosing a philosophy to embody a peaceful society is rather complicated, as the ideologies of the philosophies often differ greatly from their real world application. Debates over ideologies can create global scale problemsRead MoreChristianity And Confucianism : Confucianism2203 Words   |  9 PagesChristianity and Confucianism Christianity and Confucianism are important religions today at least according to the Chinese. As a result, the rising influence brought about by Confucianism in China tends to trigger conflicts between the two religions. The Chinese society is greatly influenced by Confucianism, which has a considerable impact on Christianity as a religion in China. The modes of thinking associated with Confucianism are evident in the Chinese Christianity, but Confucianism ideas are deeplyRead MoreConfucianism, Taoism, And Confucianism1277 Words   |  6 Pagesmain philosophies: Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism. These beliefs helped shape Chinese culture as well as Chinese history. Not only did people believe in these ideas, but the three helped to govern the mighty Chinese dynasties. These dynasties all provided an impact to each doctrine; the philosophy that had the greatest impact was legalism because it ended the Warring States Period, provided structure, and strengthened agriculture, and the military of China. Although Confucianism, Taoism and LegalismRead MoreA Short History Of Confucianism And Confucianism1196 Words   |  5 PagesProfessor Dimick 23 November 2014 A Short History of Confucianism Confucianism is a way of life propagated by the Chinese philosopher Confucius in the 6th–5th century BCE, and it has been followed by the Chinese for more than 2000 years. Although Confucianism as changed over time, at its core, it is still places the same emphasis on the substance of learning, the source of values, and the social code of the Chinese. Additionally, the influence of Confucianism has extended to other countries such as KoreaRead MoreDifferences Between Confucianism And Confucianism1084 Words   |  5 Pagesphilosophies were similar, like their beliefs about man and society; their ideas were a little bit different and each had their own focus. The difference in focus between Confucianism and Taoism is that Confucianism was focused on having a structured society. It held as a principle the brotherhood of humanity. The opinion of Confucianism in humans was that for humans to live in harmony with each other there needed to be a type of hierarchy in place. That†™s why he had the five Confucian relationships inRead MoreEssay on Confucianism2000 Words   |  8 PagesConfucianism A philosopher named Confucius founded Confucianism in China 2,500 years ago. Confucianism is a system of ethical behavior and social responsibility that became the great traditions of the East.1 It played an important role in the evolution in Chinese culture over the centuries. It has influenced near-by countries and had made a mark in the history of religion. There are today over six million people who call themselves Confucianists. Most Confucianists live in East Asia whereRead More Confucianism Essay2049 Words   |  9 Pages Confucianism Mencius vs Hsun Tzu nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Is man naturally good or is he evil? This question has not only been pondered by countless philosophers, but also by religious leaders around the world. Most often a single religious faith believes in either one or the other, and often these beliefs tend to create a certain world-view which dictates much of the faith. However, in some cases such as the one I will be discussing, two religious dignitaries do not agree and the repercussionsRead MoreContributions Of Confucianism1034 Words   |  5 PagesConfucius was a great Chinese philosopher, but he was also a teacher, editor, and politician. He was born on September 28, 551 BC, and died in 479 BC. He was most well known as Confucius, but his real name is Kong Qiu. After his death, Confucianism became the official imperial philosophy of China. Later after his death, he was regarded as a sage who deserved greater recognition, and his teachings became more popular. He accomplished many great things in his life, and died a successful man. Read MoreIs Confucianism A Religion?1595 Words   |  7 PagesIs Confucianism A Religion? Without a doubt, Confucius is regarded as one of the greatest sages of China history. Some people even refer to him as a deity. There have even been attempts to make Confucianism into a religion. However, present day people regard Confucius as an ethical teacher rather than a man of religious faith, and they refuse to believe that Confucianism is a religion. However, in order to determine whether Confucianism is a religion, the most important Confucian text, The AnalectsRead MoreMengzi And Confucianism817 Words   |  4 PagesOne of the oldest philosophies in Chinese history is Confucianism. At the time of the warring states, Confucius wandered throughout China seeking a ruler who accepted the Confucian way. Since then, his ideas grew and are still relevant today. Throughout time other philosophers, Mengzi and Xunzi, have interpreted Confucius’ teachings and have long debated whether human nature is good or bad. I argue that human nature is not, as Mengzi believes, inhere ntly good, instead, completely self-interested

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis of The Clash of Civilizations by Samuel P....

Analysis of The Clash of Civilizations by Samuel P. Huntington The article â€Å"The Clash of Civilizations?† by Samuel P. Huntington is an intriguing view on how modern day civilizations have grown to become cultural and economic entities trying to make new identities for themselves. A civilization is defined as the broadest cultural grouping of people. It contains a group of people with common languages, history, religion, and customs. Huntington states in his hypothesis â€Å"the great division among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be culture.† Huntington sees the Western civilization, consisting of mainly the United States and most of Europe, as a dominate civilization. He expresses the opinion that due to the†¦show more content†¦Huntington’s regards to the reality of ethnic and religious identities is as follows, â€Å"civilization identity will be increasingly important in the future, and the world in large will be measured by the interactions among seven or eight major civilization s.† He follows up by elaborating on how these interactions become the turning point in civilization interaction. The interactions between civilizations have become increasingly relevant due to the increasing populations of the world. This in turn has caused an awakening in cultural awareness. Economic developments as well as social changes throughout the world also modify well defined identities. The most prevalent interactions among civilizations can be observed in the recent 9/11 attacks on the United States. Huntington closes his article by stating that â€Å"the West will increasingly have to accommodate these non-Western modern civilizations whose power approaches that of the West but whose values and interests differ significantly of those of the West.† In light of the present post 9/11 world, Huntington views of the Arab Islamic civilization have come into full view. Support for his thesis has become relevant and there has ultimately become a clash of civili zations. Reference Samuel P. Huntington â€Å"The Clash of Civilizations,† The Changing Security Environment and American National Interests,Show MoreRelatedCompare and Contrast of the Arguments in Huntingtons The Clash of Civilizations and Saids The Clash of Ignorance1158 Words   |  5 PagesSamuel Huntington has made famous his thesis the clash of civilizations, which was developed in his article in Foreign Affairs in 1993 and in the book that followed, in which the author expanded his thesis and reaffirmed the validity of his theory after the success and controversy that followed the publication of his article. In fact, the â€Å"civilizational† approach of conflicts today is now intrinsically linked to a comprehensive theory of international relations, which Samuel Huntington has developedRead MoreThe Clash of Civilizations: a Summary of Samuel Huntingtons Controversial Political Analysis and Its Critics2376 Words   |  10 PagesBishop The Clash of Civilizations: A Summary of Samuel Huntington’s controversial Political Analysis and its Critics â€Å"Culture and cultural identities, which at the broadest level are civilizational identities, are shaping patterns of cohesion, disintegration, and conflict in the post-Cold War World† - Samuel Huntington POLI 100 - F10N01! Gabrielle Bishop In a 1993 article published in Foreign Affairs, Harvard Professor of Government and Political Scientist Samuel Huntington made a predictionRead MoreThe Clash of Civilizations: a Summary of Samuel Huntington’s Controversial Political Analysis and Its Critics2367 Words   |  10 PagesGabrielle Bishop The Clash of Civilizations: A Summary of Samuel Huntington’s controversial Political Analysis and its Critics â€Å"Culture and cultural identities, which at the broadest level are civilizational identities, are shaping patterns of cohesion, disintegration, and conflict in the post-Cold War World† - Samuel Huntington POLI 100 - F10N01! Gabrielle Bishop In a 1993 article published in Foreign Affairs, Harvard Professor of Government and Political Scientist Samuel Huntington made a predictionRead MoreThe Cold War Was Easy : Capitalism Vs. Communism1402 Words   |  6 PagesUniversal Civilization.† Although he stated that, â€Å"you need to start with a certain kind of sensibility† he admitted, â€Å"I have no unifying theory of things† as well as, â€Å"I am not going to attempt to define this civilization.† Not accepting Naipaul’s theory that, â€Å"in general, the cultural coming together of humanity and the increasing acceptance of common values, beliefs, orientations, practices and institutions by peoples throughout the world†¦Ã¢â‚¬  would create this â€Å"Universal Civilization,† Samuel P. HuntingtonRead MoreEvaluation Of Huntington s Thesis1047 Words   |  5 PagesMuslim and U.S. Relations In 1992, Samuel Huntington had suggested his idea on the Clash of Civilizations (COC) which he later, in 1996, discussed in more detail in his book The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (Huntington 1996). The most popular inference made from his thesis is the idea that post-Cold War conflicts will be due to cultural difference and religion rather than cooperation. Huntington surrounds this idea around eight major civilizations which are: Western, ConfucianRead MoreReanalyze the Relationship of the West and Islamic Civilization Future1142 Words   |  5 PagesSamuel P. Huntington thesis has been in center of debates for many years. Moreover, his prediction that main conflicts in near future is between the West (the United States and allies) versus Islamic Civilization has triggered controversy among International Relations scholars. This paper tries to analyze three main supportive arguments from Huntington thesis in the West v. Islam conflict. Democracy System v. Islamic Laws Samuel P. Huntington stated that Muslims unable to accept democracy becauseRead MoreThe Conflict Between China And The United States1386 Words   |  6 Pagesargue in favor of Samuel Huntington’s theory of the â€Å"clash of civilizations† through cultural divisions in the context of the increasing global conflict between China and The United States. In essence, the â€Å"clash of civilizations† between China and the United States will be primarily based on the problem of cultural hegemony in the 21st century struggle for global dominance between these two modern nation states. Huntington’s theory provides ample evidence of the growing clash of religious culturalRead MoreThe West Vs. Reality1366 Words   |  6 Pagesand descent of civilizations has molded history influencing what nations have become today. The approach of using a strong military and a dynamic economy can be seen as template for civilizations when trying to dominate parts of the world si nce this template has been consistently used. The Clash of Civilizations, an essay by Samuel P. Huntington, argues that, as a result of the Cold War, global politics would be centered around the conflicts between the world’s civilizations. Huntington perceives theRead MoreC112 Theorist Critique Assignment1913 Words   |  8 Pages(Kaplan, Friedman, Huntington, or Barnett), and answer the five requirements beginning on page two of this document. This assignment is worth 25% of the C100 grade. The four readings from which to choose are listed below. Barnett The Pentagon’s New Map: It Explains why We’re Going to War and why We’ll Keep Going to War Friedman National Strategies and Capabilities for a Changing World: Globalization and National Security Huntington The Clash of Civilizations Kaplan TheRead More A Theological Perspective of the Clash of Civilizations Essay7154 Words   |  29 Pagesthe United States of America as a manifestation of a â€Å"clash of civilizations.† At the center of this way of looking at these unprecedented events has been an article and book both authored by the noted Harvard professor of political science, Samuel P. In the summer 1993 edition of the journal Foreign Affairs, Huntington argued that world politics was entering a new phase after the end of the Cold War, and that tensions between civilizations, as the highest cultural groupings of people, would dominate

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Lais vs Canterbury Tales free essay sample

The two literary works are framed narratives, containing several small stores. Both were written in a similar time period with The Lais of Marie de France being written in the 12th century and The Canterbury Tales composed in the 14th century. More specifically, the Franklin’s Tale from The Canterbury Tales and the Eliduc from The Lais of Marie de France contain a handful of similar elements. The two tell the stories of seemingly fortified romances turned fowl after the husband leaves for an extended period of time. However, the two stories have a few differences, specifically the gender of the protagonist. In the Eliduc, the male character commits adultery while he is away from his homeland. In the Franklin’s Tale, however, the female character seeks extramarital affairs when her husband is away. Appropriately, the Eliduc’s protagonist is the male character and the Franklin’s Tale focuses more on the female character. We will write a custom essay sample on Lais vs Canterbury Tales or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Eliduc and the Franklin’s Tale describe near identical stories about extramarital affairs, with the genders of the characters reversed. In the Eliduc, and the Franklin’s Tale, one can observe similarities between the two protagonists and between their spouses. In the opening lines of the two narratives, marriages are articulated to the reader. In the Eliduc, Eliduc â€Å"had wedded in his youth a noble lady of proud race and name† (31). It appears that Eliduc chose the person that he would marry and she consented to the wedding. She consented immediately, and he did not have to prove anything to his future wife. In the opening of his tale, the Franklin describes the marriage between Arviragus and Dorigen saying, â€Å"[Dorigen] did perform for [Arviagus] so she’d be won,/ for she’s among the fairest beneath the sun† (Franklin, 25–26). Arviragus finds Dorigen to be very special, but Dorigen may not have felt the same way. Arviagus had to work for Dorigen’s love, which proves the discrepancy between the couple’s feelings for each other. The Franklin farther qualifies imbalance of love between the couple, saying that, â€Å"But she, at last for all his worthiness,/ and namely for all his meek obeying,/ such pity took then on is suffering,/ that privately with him she did accord/ to take him for her husband and her lord† (Franklin, 30–35). Dorigen actually chose to marry Arviagus. She knew that Dorigen had affection for her, but was unsure of her feelings at first. Dorigen’s charm, loyalty, and love overwhelmed her, however, and she eventually agreed to marry him. The balance of power in the relationships is reserved for the protagonist. There is no mention of who had more control over the relationship between Eliduc and Guildeluec, tacitly delegating the rule to the man, as was custom. The Franklin’s Tale strays away from the status quo and gives the marital power to Dorigen instead of Arviagus. The Franklin describes the power in the relationship saying â€Å"Of his free will, he swore to her, as knight,/ In all his life, that never, day or night,/ would he upon himself take mastery/ against her will, nor show his jealousy, but heed her will and also obey her, as his lay, just like any lover/ Except that the title of sovereignty,/ To save his rank from same, that would keep he† (Franklin 37–44). The Franklin starts by stating that men usually had control over their wives, but that he chose not to exercise his power.

Wednesday, April 8, 2020

Has the Gift of Tongues Ceased for Today

Introduction The gift of speaking in tongues is a very controversial issue: people argue about where it came from and even whether there is anything like speaking in tongues today. Some believe that the gift ceased during the apostolic age and nowadays when people seem to speak in tongues it is believed that they are just speaking words without meaning even in the spiritual perspective.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Has the Gift of Tongues Ceased for Today? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to find out the truth about this gift there is need for a deep examination to be carried into the use of this gift in the early church during the apostolic time and a comparison made on how it is applied today. This will give a basis of making an informed decision. Thesis Statement This research paper seeks to show whether the gift of speaking in tongue has ceased or it is still present among the contemporar y believers. Many people nowadays do not agree with the gift of speaking in tongue and they believe that speaking in tongues ceased after the death of the disciples. They, therefore, view the preachers speaking in tongues as pretenders or having unclean spirits. The reason could be because speaking in tongues has been misused by some ministers who view preaching as a profession rather than a call. This paper will examine the characteristics of the gift of speaking in tongues in the apostolic time and compare them to what is happening today in regard to speaking in tongues. In the light of the comparison, it is shown that the gift of speaking in tongues today is not what it used to be then during the apostolic times therefore technically it is true to argue that the gift of speaking in tongues ceased after the apostolic age. Speaking in Tongues in the Early Church The early church used to speak in tongues and the apostles were the first people to introduce the gift of speaking in ton gues in the early church during the day of Pentecost. Christian Assemblies International argued that there was clear evidence that the early church were speaking in tongues. They respected the disciples who were speaking in tongues since they also respected the message they were talking about. Believers in the early church marveled at what the Lord did referring to the act of a person speaking in a language not familiar to him fluently. Unlike today, the early believers were eager to listen to those speaking in tongues since they knew that they were being led by the Holy Spirit (Hartwick 1).Advertising Looking for research paper on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Historical Evidence Christian Assemblies International highlighted several occasions where disciples were speaking or talking about this gift. In Act 19: 1-6, Paul preached to people at Ephesus asking them whether they had received the Holy Spirit. Realizing that they had not even known what that was, he preached to them, baptized them and laid his hands on them and they received the Holy Spirit through speaking in tongues. The Holy Spirit later helped them to preach and to prophecy to other people. In Corinth, Paul encouraged people to desire to receive the gift of the Holy Spirit just like other gifts that they had. According to Christian Assemblies International, Paul was encouraging them to excel in speaking in tongues so that they could improve the church. However, he was insisting that those who were speaking in tongues were to pray tirelessly to receive power of interpreting those tongues (Christian Assemblies International 1). On the same note, Busenitz argued that in the early church one does not need to be trained or get skills on how to speak in tongues. This is because speaking in tongues is a gift which believers receive through the grace of God freely. He argued that by the fact that people speak in strange lang uages that no one has taught them shows that speaking in tongues is a gift from the above (Busenitz 65). Nature of Gift in the Early Church According to Busenitz, the early church understood the gift of speaking in tongues as of benefit to others more than to one self. He claimed that the main aim of speaking in tongues was to encourage and improve the church and also to evangelize to both the believers and non- believers. This aim was based on the commandments that the early church was observing keenly concerning loving God and other people. In this way, they were working towards the common good of the believers and the church at large (Busenitz 66). To insist that speaking in tongue was supposed to benefit the church Busenitz stated: With the gift, therefore, which thou hast received from our Lord, serve thy spiritual brethren, the prophets who know that the words which thou speakest are those of our Lord; and declare the gift which thou hast received in the Church for the edifica tion of the brethren in Christ (for good and excellent are those things which help the men of God), if so be that they are truly with thee. (Busenitz 66) Speaking in Tongues in Church Today Speaking in tongues is a gift that has greatly been misused in the entire church today. Boyne highlighted that the way the gift is being practiced today creates a great difference in the way it was used in the early church. This is what is bringing a lot of differences among the believers and also the questions that are cast by the non-believers. He argued that in the early church few people were speaking in tongues and each at a time.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Has the Gift of Tongues Ceased for Today? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This was to allow the interpreters to interpret to the believers the message that the Holy Spirit wanted them to know, unlike today where everyone speaks in tongues in unison and no one interprets at the end; this means that the gift is for oneself more than it is for others. Boyne claimed that speaking in tongues today is considered to many as a way of showing off. Persons speaking in tongues are considered more spiritual and righteous compared to those who never speak in tongues. Busenitz further highlighted that it was not necessary in the early church for everybody to speak in tongues or perform miracles such as raising the dead and casting out demons since not all people were gifted with this gift. Unlike the early church, the church today encourages every believer to speak in tongues as a way of the presence of the Holy Spirit. This makes people miss the point and fail to capture the essence of speaking in tongues. Just as the Corinthian were thinking that the gift of speaking in tongue was a great gift, today many people believe so and assume that it should only be a gift of the few chosen by the Lord. This is the reason as to why they argue that ther e is nothing like speaking in tongues and in so doing they judge even those who have the gift of speaking in tongue from God and they cannot listen to the messages that are deliver to them. Busenitz argument was that speaking in tongues was not the greatest gift, the disciple just got it first as a sign that they were to go preaching to different nations majority of which they did not understand their languages. Speaking in different tongues therefore was to enable them to evangelize to different people from different communities (Busenitz 67). Many people today believe that the gift of speaking tongue is for few people since real gift of speaking in tongues is from the lord and it is rare to find in today’s church. The reason being that, today people claim to be followers of Christ yet their actions are against His teachings. Challenges with Speaking in Tongues Today Speaking in tongues in church today has brought divisions among the believers. Busenitz highlighted that in s ome Pentecostal churches today there seem to be two classes of Christians: those who speak in tongues and those who have never spoken in tongues. According to Busenitz, the people who have the gift of the Holy Spirit from the Lord know how to control what they say and they speak when the holy sprit chooses them to speak. On the contrary, people with unclean spirit speak things that they do not know and understand, and they are uncontrollable (Busenitz 68). This may justify why many people have questions in regards to speaking in tongues to an extent of declaring that speaking in tongue ceased. It is therefore, the responsibility of the Christians to discern spirits and know who bears the real gift of speaking in tongues and who have unclean spirit.Advertising Looking for research paper on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Failure to do this in the current church, Christians will entertain people who are not filled with the Holy Spirit hence they will be misled. The Interactive Bible has refuted that the Holy Spirit manifests himself through believers speaking in tongues; it has been argued that this might be a sign that they work within some cults and not in Christianity. It is also argued that the gift ceased with the apostolic age (The Interactive Bible 1). However depending with the way Christians behave in our presence we can really tell whether the gift still exists or not. Conclusion Having reviewed several literature materials whereby the authors have highlighted that the gift of speaking in tongues does not seem to occur today as it was in the early church, I concur with the points supporting that the gift of speaking tongues is being misused by believers today. I have come to a conclusion that the gift of speaking in tongues today is not used as it was used in the early church and therefore swaying the debate in favor of the gift having ceased with the apostolic age. This is because of the fact that this gift is misused. Jared Moore states that the gift of speaking in tongue is man-centered to day. This shows that it is something that is used for the wrong purpose contrary to what it was used during the early church. Works Cited Boyne, Ian. â€Å"Speaking in Tongues.† Ecclesia. Web. Busenitz, Nathan. â€Å"The Gift of Tongues: Comparing the Church Fathers with Contemporary Pentecostalism.† The Master’s Seminary, 2006. Web. Christian Assemblies International. â€Å"Evidence of Speaking in Tongues in the Early Church.† Christian Assemblies International. Web. Got Question. â€Å"What is the Gift of Speaking in Tongues?† Got Questions, 2012. Web. Hartwick, Reuben. â€Å"Speaking in Tongues: The Initial Physical Evidence of the Baptism in the Holy Spirit.† Enrichment Journal, 2010. Web. The Interactive Bible. â€Å"Cessation of sp iritual gifts Encyclopedia of Pentecostal objections and the refutation of these objections.† The Interactive Bible.  Web. This research paper on Has the Gift of Tongues Ceased for Today? was written and submitted by user Reece Wooten to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, March 9, 2020

5 Cases of Unnecessary Hyphenation

5 Cases of Unnecessary Hyphenation 5 Cases of Unnecessary Hyphenation 5 Cases of Unnecessary Hyphenation By Mark Nichol In each of the following sentences, one or more hyphens are extraneous. A discussion and revision follows each example. 1. Data is accurate and often delivered in real-time. â€Å"Real time† is a compound noun, and such nouns are almost invariably open or closed; hyphenated exceptions such as mind-set are rare. If a compound noun does not appear in the dictionary in closed form (or hyphenated), treat it as an open compound: â€Å"Data is accurate and often delivered in real time.† (However, do hyphenate such a compound that functions as a phrasal adjective before a noun, as in â€Å"This tool provides valuable real-time insight into the process.† Exceptions include standing open compound nouns that are listed in the dictionary, such as â€Å"income tax†: â€Å"This rule does not apply to income tax returns.†) 2. As companies become increasingly informa ­tion-driven, information technology plays a pivotal role in this transformation. When a phrasal adjective follows the noun it modifies, do not hyphenate it: â€Å"As companies become increasingly informa ­tion driven, information technology plays a pivotal role in this transformation.† (However, as alluded to in the previous discussion, hyphenate a phrasal adjective when it precedes a noun, as in â€Å"information-driven companies.†) 3. Companies need to get up-to-speed quickly on their regulatory requirements. The words in â€Å"up to speed† do not collectively modify anything, so hyphens are not required: â€Å"Companies need to get up to speed quickly on their regulatory requirements.† 4. Protocols with minimal-to-no tolerance for mistakes should clearly articulate what constitutes a mistake, and how to avoid making it. This sentence includes an unnecessarily hyphenated phrase that is incorrect for the same reason that the one in the previous example is. However, because a noun follows the phrase â€Å"minimal to no,† the phrase may be misidentified as a phrasal adjective. But minimal and no are distinct adjectives that do not combine with to to create a single modifier: â€Å"Protocols with minimal to no tolerance for mistakes should clearly articulate what constitutes a mistake, and how to avoid making it.† 5. Many residents were stunned by the apparently racially-inspired crime. Adverbial phrases in which the adverb ends in -ly, not to be confused with phrasal adjectives, are not hyphenated: â€Å"Many residents were stunned by the apparently racially inspired crime.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Punctuation category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:50 Idioms About Legs, Feet, and ToesDawned vs. DonnedA "Diploma" is not a "Degree"

Friday, February 21, 2020

Origin and Early Expansion of Islam Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Origin and Early Expansion of Islam - Essay Example This change was mainly brought about by the new religion of Islam. "Islam exploded upon the world with the sudden force of a desert whirlwind."1(Hyslop 1991,18) Islam unified the tribal groups of Arabia and its sphere of influence increased with more and more people being drawn to the new religion. By the beginning of the eighth century, Islam had spread from India in the east to Spain in the west, making the other ancient empires look puny by contrast. This spectacular expansion of Islam was made possible by the social, political and economic conditions of the people prevailing during the time and the simplicity of the religion.. It is indubitable that Islam brought many different peoples together because of its emphasis on charity. Arabia was peopled by the nomadic Bedouin tribes as well as the traders and merchants who lived a settled life. The Bedouins were poor and had a hard life, while the traders and merchants lived a settled life of comfort. Trade routes from many countries crossed in South Arabia. Luxury goods like silk, spices and precious stones were brought from India and China by the arab dhows, which then were transported by land, in caravans to the empires of the Mediterranean and Europe. The Arab traders who controlled the trade from India and China to the Mediterranean and European countries became very rich. Greed of the rich was increasing while the poor people suffered untold hardships. In 613 A.D, when Mohammad first started preaching his new religion, with its emphasis on charity to the poor, it appealed to the rich and poor alike. Many people converted to the new religion. Another reason for the rapid rise of Islam was that religion was not separate from politics in Islam. According to Goldschmidt, "Religion was a corporate experience, a community of believers bound together by adherence to a common set of laws and beliefs, rather than a private and personal relationship between each person and his maker. Religion and politics were inextricably intertwined."2 (Goldschmidt 2005, 106) At the time, the Byzantine Empire with its capital at Constantinople , and the Sassanian Empire ,had both become impoverished by constant wars. The weakened conditions of the formidable empires made it easy for the Islamic warriors to conquer new lands. "The fierce efficiency of the desert warriors and their fervor under Islam contributed to the explosive campaign of conquest."3 (Hyslop 1991, 40) The appeal of the new religion was very great- it attracted people from all walks of life. The basic rules required to be followed by the followers of Islam, who were called Muslims, were only five, and they were very simple. The first rule was, acknowledging that there is only one god who is called Allah, and that Mohammad was his prophet. The second rule was to pray five times a day facing Mecca. The third rule was to fast during the month of Ramzan. The fourth rule was to pay zakat , a kind of charity , and the fifth rule was to make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a Muslim's lifetime. The rewards for observing these simple rules were quite attractive for the Arabs. They would share the loot, as well as receive attractive rewards in the